Thursday, March 26, 2009

Pathology: Tennis Elbow

Etiology of the tennis elbow includes the age of the client as people over the age of 30 years of age are more prone to incurring tennis elbow. Other causes of the diseases is repetitive action of the muscles involved in tennis elbow, for example playing tennis for a number of years, using the same muscles, tendons and ligaments day after day will eventually cause tennis elbow. Other causes are; tightness of grip, unskilled tennis players, force and flexibility of the forearm extensors. Also tennis elbow can be caused by a direct hit or a fall onto the elbow (Brad Walker 1999).

Pathogenesis which is the affects after the disease or in this case the tennis elbow, is that with tennis elbow, small micro tears form in the tendons and muscles that are the control for such movements as swinging a tennis racket. From these tears they restrict movement and inflict pain, they also lead to the formation of scar tissue and calcium deposits therefore putting a lot of pressure on the muscles and nerves that can cut off blood flow to those areas (Brad Walker 1999).

Morphological is the anatomical changes that occur from the tennis elbow. Therefore the changes within the tennis elbow disease are the micro tears of the tendons and muscles used that was mentioned in the pathogenesis.

Histological is the cellular and extra-cellular matrix changes when tennis elbow is present in the elbow. When tennis elbow is present, as said above, there are going to be micro tears in the tissues therefore as when there is an injury of the tissue there is usually bleeding at the site as the tear very likely would damage small blood vessels. This fluid includes blood and also chemicals that are released into the extracellular fluid (Marieb, E,. Hoehn, K, 2007), that accumulates at the damaged site which contains protein that turns into scar tissue. When there is an overload of scar tissue it will result in restriction of movement and also preventing the structure to return to its normal state, also increasing the risk of re-injury.

- Approximately 1% - 3% are diagnosed with “tennis elbow” each year (Joshi, D, 2008)

- Estimated that 40% to 50% of all tennis players will incur tennis elbow at one point in their carrier (Marc. C, Levesque, MD, PhD, MD, 2007).
- “Between January 2004 and June, 2007, the number of Patients receiving a “tennis elbow” diagnosis has risen by 25% (Joshi, D, 2008).”


Joshi, D,. (2008). Arthroscopic Treatment for Tennis Elbow: Report Shows Excellent Outcomes. Retrieved 26th of March 2009 from

Marc. C, Levesque, MD, PhD, MD,. (2007). Arthritis and Tennis Elbow. Retrieved 24th of March 2009 from

Marieb, E, N,. Hoehn, K,. (2007). Human Anatomy and Physiology. 7th edition.

Research – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2009). Retrieved 24th of March 2009 from

Vicenzino, B,. (2009). Lateral Epicondylalgia. Retrieved 24th of March 2009 from

Walker, B,. (1999). The Stretching Institute. Tennis Elbow: Guide to the treatment and prevention of tennis elbow. Retrieved 24th of March 2009 from

Wednesday, March 25, 2009

Information Quality

Collins Concise English Dictionary defines quality as “The degree of excellence which a thing possesses” (1978).
Information quality has a degree of excellence therefore is essential to the construction and critiquing of the research for any given topic.

Through research you can find information from a lot of different sources; library, internet, books, journals, articles etc. From this you then have to define what good and poor quality is.

How do you define the difference? How do you collect the correct data analysis to produce a comprehensive outcome for your research?

Alastair Smith (2005) has an idea that is an easy way to sort through the poor and good quality of resource information found through the internet.
He starts by looking at the scope including; breadth, depth, time and format. He then goes to the content; accuracy, authority, currency, uniqueness, links made to other resources and quality of writing. Alastair also looks at the graphic and multimedia design, purpose, for what audience, reviews, working ability; user friendly, required computing environment, searching browsability and organisation, interactivity, connectivity and cost.
Alastair’s analysis of internet quality of information is both precise and detailed.

Also Wendy Lazarus and Laurie Lipper (2003) also came up with a concept to identify what information is quality and what isn’t on the internet. They came up with a very different approach where they use a point system to define if the information is quality or not.
They split the evaluation into three sections. The first section is the baseline requirements, for example the author or sponsor being clearly identified. The second section is standards for low-barrier web sites which includes the literacy level of text. The third section is the requirements for high-quality web sites, which includes information quality, presentation etc.

Information these days comes from a lot of different sources and from these two sources it seems the internet is not so different from articles, books, journals etc.

Wikipedia referenced a journal that they found, that gives a precise outline of the dimensions to find and identify information quality (Wang & Strong, 1996).

1. Intrinsic IQ: Accuracy, objective, believability, reputation.
2. Contextual IQ: Relevancy, value-added, timeliness, completeness, amount of information.
3. Representational IQ: Interpretability, ease of understanding, concise representation, consistent representation.
4. Accessibility IQ: Accessibility, access security.

Through the sources found I established that they all have a similar way of finding the best quality of information. For example Alastair’s concept of finding quality information is to first read and then eliminating the requirements as they are established in the text. Wendy and Laurie found that their concept of a point system established what grade of quality the information was produced. Together they both used similar questions towards the text to achieve an efficient way to identify quality information.

Coming back to my questions asked before: How do you define the difference?

I have found reading through my references that you find the biggest difference in the first two minutes of looking at the resources provided. For example, where is the Author or sponsor clearly stated? When the resource was last updated? Are the first few lines easy to read and understand?

How do you collect the correct data analysis to produce a comprehensive outcome for your research topic?
Through my research, Wang & Strong’s concept has a basic outline that provides a guideline to find the correct data analysis for producing a comprehensive outcome. I repeat their concept again:
1. Intrinsic IQ: Accuracy, objective, believability, reputation.
2. Contextual IQ: Relevancy, value-added, timeliness, completeness, amount of information.
3. Representational IQ: Interpretability, ease of understanding, concise representation, consistent representation.
4. Accessibility IQ: Accessibility, access security.


Information quality – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2009) Retrieved March 18, 2009 from

Smith, A.G., (2005). Criteria for evaluation of Internet Resources, Retrieved March 18 2009 from

Lazarus, W., Lipper, L., (2003). The Children’s Partnership. Guidelines For Content Creation And Evaluation, Retrieved March 18 2009 from

Collins, W,. Collins Cincise English Dictionary. (1978).

Thursday, March 5, 2009

The Research Process

“The definition of Research process is. The ordered set of activities focused on the systematic collection of information using accepted methods of analysis as a basis for drawing conclusions and making recommendations” (Citied Mondofacto, education dictionary 2009).

Research states that there are several key steps involved in the research process. They begin with selecting a research topic, and the development of a tentative thesis, which is the argument that the research will defend. Next step was finding sources of supporting information and write notes from the information gathered through - books, journals, newspapers, web sites, interviews, etc. The next main step in the research process involved the writing of the paper. Using the notes previously noted , summaries, paraphrase, and incorporate quotes into a draft. The draft can be changed a few times before the final draft is complete. Next step was that you give credit to the sources used by producing a bibliography, or a list of sources. The final step was to edit the research document prior to submission.

Other sources I have found have a similar outlook on how the research process is defined for example Cambridge Rindge and Latin Research Guide uses a similar method but also incorporates writing a statement of purpose and then brainstorm questions about the focus topic. After that making a list of possible sources to produce research for the given topic. The University of Auckland adopt a simplified method when undertaking research which is broken down into 5 small steps, Step one is Defining your topic by clearly mapping out the concepts you want to research. Step two is selecting and using the best research resources, therefore using the internet, articles, books found at the local library. Step three is Locating the information you have identified, from the library or news article. Step four is evaluating resources, so printing out information and highlighting the more specific points also checking facts so that they are correct. Step five is documenting/citing your research, therefore stating at the end of you research writing a bibliography for the resources that you sourced your information from.

From the examples given of the research processes adopted by Research, Cambridge Rindge and Latin Research Guide and The University of Auckland, it can be seen that all three share similar characteristics when undertaking the research process. Their similarities were that they all had to have a focus topic, locating information and referencing research information found in the document. Although, they did have small differences for example, Auckland University had a more compacted process and was to the point, and Research had a complex and in-depth path to achieve the research process.

Therefore we ask the question why do we need to research, let alone use a research process?
Through Massage therapy and the medical world research is a very common aspect to the profession. Research process is important to the medical and health care part of our world also many, many more. Through researching different medical backgrounds we have now established a different insight to a lot of medical and health care professions. We have researched for how we can stop an infection all the way to how we can fix a broken leg. Research also can include the more spiritual side of medical care and healing of the hands.

I feel that the research process is necessary for the development of life in itself.


Cambridge Rindge And Latin Research Guide. (2008). Basic Steps in the Research process. Retrieved March 4, 2009, from

Mondofacto. (2008). Research process. Retrieved March 4, 2009, from

Research (2009). Overview of the Research Process. Retrieved March 4, 2009, from

The University of Auckland. (2009). The Research Process - step to success. Retrieved March 6, 2009, from